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MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2013-12-30 11:41:45

Several sources have multiple means for citation, especially those that appear in varied formats: films, DVDs, videocassettes; published and unpublished interviews, interviews over e-mail; published and unpublished conference proceedings. The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections.

An Interview

Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews, although interviews may also appear in other, similar formats such as in e-mail format or as a Web document.

Personal Interviews

Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.

Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.

Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast)

List the interview by the name of the interviewee. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book, a television program, or a film series, place the title of the interview in quotation marks. Place the title of the larger work in italics. If the interview appears as an independent title, italicize it. Determine the medium of publication (e.g., print, Web, DVD) and fill in the rest of the entry with the information required by that medium. For books, include the author or editor name after the book title.

Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper.

Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review 27.3 (1999): 129-50. Print.

Amis, Kingsley. “Mimic and Moralist.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men. By Dale Salwak. San Bernardino: Borgo, 1984. Print.

Online-only Published Interviews

List the interview by the name of the interviewee. If the interview has a title, place it in quotation marks. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive Web content. Place the name of the Website in italics, give the publisher name (or sponsor), the publication date, the medium of publication (Web), and the date of access. Remember that if no publisher name is give, insert the abbreviation n.p.

Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper.

Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Skewed & Reviewed. Skewed & Reviewed, 2009. Web. 15 Mar. 2009.

Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations)

Provide the speaker’s name. Then, give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. Follow with the name of the meeting and organization, the location of the occasion, and the date. Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e.g., Address, Lecture, Reading, Keynote Speech, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation). Remember to use the abbreviation n.p. if the publisher is not known; use n.d. if the date is not known.

Stein, Bob. "Computers and Writing Conference Presentation." Purdue University. Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. 23 May 2003. Keynote Address.

Published Conference Proceedings

Cite published conference proceedings like a book. If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title, add this information after the published proceedings title. The medium of publication is Print. Remember to use the abbreviation n.p. if the publisher is not known; use n.d. if the date is not known.

LastName, FirstName, ed. Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Print.

LastName, FirstName, ed. Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference Date and Location. Conference Date, Conference Location. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Print.

To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings, begin with the presenter’s name. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings.

LastName, FirstName. “Conference Paper Title.” Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. Ed. Conference Editor(s). City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Print.

A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph

Include the artist's name. Give the title of the artwork in italics. Provide the date of composition. If the date of composition is unknown, place the abbreviation n.d. in place of the date. Name the medium of the piece, and finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution.

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.g. images of artwork in a book), cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.).

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. By Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. 939. Print.

For artwork in an online format, consult “An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)” by following the link Works Cited: Electronic Sources at the bottom of this page.

Films or Movies

List films (in theaters or not yet on DVD or video) by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director’s name. Use the abbreviation perf. to head the list. List film as the medium of publication. To cite a DVD or other video recording, see “Recorded Films and Movies” below.

The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.

To emphasize specific performers (perf.) or directors (dir.), begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director, followed by the appropriate abbreviation.

Lucas, George, dir. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977. Film.

Recorded Films or Movies

List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director’s name. Use the abbreviation perf. to head the list. End the entry with the appropriate medium of publication (e.g. DVD, VHS, Laser disc).

Ed Wood. Dir. Tim Burton. Perf. Johnny Depp, Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, Patricia Arquette. Touchstone, 1994. DVD.

Broadcast Television or Radio Program

Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Provide the name of the series or program in italics. Also include the network name, call letters of the station followed by the city, and the date of broadcast. End with the publication medium (e.g. Television, Radio). For television episodes on Videocassette or DVD refer to the “Recorded Television Episodes” section below.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox. WXIA, Atlanta. 19 Jul. 1998. Television.

Recorded Television Episodes (e.g. DVD, Videocassette)

Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above). Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. Follow with the series name in italics. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e.g., the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would help researchers to locate the recording. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution. End with the medium of publication (e.g. DVD, Videocassette, Laser disc).

Note: The writer may choose to include information about directors, writers, performers, producers between the title and the distributor name. Use appropriate abbreviations for these contributors (e.g. dir., writ., perf., prod.).

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season. Writ. Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. Dir. Kevin Bright. Warner Brothers, 2004. DVD.

Sound Recordings

List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers. Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers (comp.) or performers (perf.). Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title.

Use the appropriate abbreviation after the person’s name and a comma, when needed. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date (or n.d., if date is unknown). List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry (e.g. CD, LP, Audiocassette). For MP3 recordings, see the “Digital Files” section below.

Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date, include this information before the manufacturer name. Use the abbreviation for “recorded” (Rec.) and list the recording date (dd mm year format) before the manufacturer name.

Foo Fighters. In Your Honor. RCA, 2005. CD.

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind. Geffen, 1991. Audiocassette.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. The 9 Symphonies. Perf. NBC Symphony Orchestra. Cond. Arturo Toscanini. RCA, 2003. CD.

Spoken-Word Albums

Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums.

Hedberg, Mitch. Strategic Grill Locations. Comedy Central, 2003. CD.

Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs)

Determine the type of work to cite (e.g., article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e.g., PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3). If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the medium of publication. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Moonlight Sonata. Crownstar, 2006. MP3.

Smith, George. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.” 2005. Microsoft Word file.

 

Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and National Writing Project. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing. CWPA, NCTE, and NWP, 2011. PDF file.

 

Bentley, Phyllis. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review 30.4 (1968): 509-22. JSTOR. PDF file.

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