This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.
Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee
Last Edited: 2014-12-02 10:33:39
Periodicals include printed journals, electronic journals, magazines, and newspapers. Citations for these sources should include enough information for the reader to find the resource in a library or a database. Thus, dates are essential (month, day, and year for magazines and newspapers and volume and year plus month or issue number for journals). In notes, the major elements are separated by commas; in the bibliography, these elements are separated by periods.
Notes and bibliographic entries for a journal include the following: author’s name, article title, journal title and issue information. Issue information refers to volume, issue number, month, year, and page numbers. For online works, retrieval information and the date of access are also included.
Notes include the author’s name as listed in the article. Bibliographic entries, however, invert the author’s name.
Both notes and bibliographies use quotation marks to set off the titles of articles within the journal.
Journal titles may omit an initial “The” but should otherwise be given in full, capitalized (headline-style), and italicized.
The volume number follows the journal title with no punctuation and is not italicized. The issue number (if it is given) is separated from the volume number with a comma and is preceded by “no.” The year appears in parenthesis after the volume number (or issue number if given). The year may be preceded by a specific date, month, or season if given. Page information follows the year. For notes, page number(s) refer only to the cited material; the bibliography includes the first and last pages of the article.
1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.
MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.
Citing electronic journals generally follows the same format for printed periodicals, which is explained in the Journals section. Additionally, entries include the DOI or URL (DOIs are preferred). The date accessed may also be included, especially if the material is time sensitive, but it is not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. The access date may be included immediately prior to the DOI or URL and, if included, should be separated by commas in notes or periods in bibliographical entries.
Even if weekly or monthly magazines are numbered by volume or issue, they are cited by date only. When following the CMS Note and Bibliography style, the year is presented as shown in the examples below. When following the CMS Author Date style, the date is essential to the citation and it is not enclosed in parentheses.
Regular department titles are capitalized headline-style but not put in quotation marks.
Citations for magazine articles may include a specific page number. Inclusive page numbers for the entire article are often omitted in bibliographical entries, however, because the pages of the article are often separated by many pages of unrelated material. If page numbers are included, they should follow the date and be preceded by a colon.
1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
Notes and bibliographic entries for magazines include the following information: author’s name, article title, magazine title, date.
1. Emily Macel, “Beijing’s Modern Movement,” Dance Magazine, February 2009, 35.
Macel, Emily. “Beijing’s Modern Movement.” Dance Magazine, February 2009.
Notes and bibliographic entries for online magazines should follow the relevant examples for printed magazines. Additionally, online magazine entries should also contain the DOI or URL.
Note: In the examples below, Green Room is not placed in quotation marks because it is the department title rather than the article title.
If an access date is necessary, the access date should be included in parentheses at the end of the citation. Access dates are used for time-sensitive details and may be required by certain publishers or disciplines.
1. Barron YoungSmith, Green Room, Slate, February 4, 2009, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.
YoungSmith, Barron. Green Room. Slate, February 4, 2009. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.
Notes and bibliographic entries for newspapers should include the following: name of the author (if listed), headline or column heading, newspaper name, month (often abbreviated), day, and year. Since issues may include several editions, page numbers are usually omitted. If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation.
Names of Newspapers:
If the name of a newspaper begins with “The,” this word is omitted. For American newspapers that are not well-known, a city name should be added along with the newspaper title (see below). Additionally, a state abbreviation may be added in parenthesis after the city name.
News services, such as the Associated Press or the United Press International, are capitalized but not italicized and often appear in the author position of the citation.
Headlines may be capitalized using “headline style,” in which all major words are capitalized, or “sentence style,” in which only the first word and other proper nouns are capitalized. Although many major newspapers prefer sentence style,the CMS recommends headline style for consistency among various types of cited sources.
If a regular column is cited, the column name may be included with the article title or, to save space, the column name may replace the article title.
Citing in Text:
Newspapers are more often cited in text or in notes than in bibliographies. If newspaper sources are carefully documented in the text, they need not be cited in the bibliography.
1. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.
Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.