In-Text (Citation) References
This resource covers American Sociological Association (ASA) style and includes information about manuscript formatting, in-text citations, formatting the references page, and accepted manuscript writing style. The bibliographical format described here is taken from the American Sociological Association (ASA) Style Guide, 4th edition.
Contributors:Deborah L. Coe, Dana Lynn Driscoll
Last Edited: 2014-01-01 07:06:02
Cite the last name of the author and year of publication.
Include page numbers within the citation when directly quoting the authors’ words or paraphrasing a passage.
If the author's name is used in the text, put the date in parentheses.
If the author's name is not in the text, enclose last name and year in parentheses.
Short quotations in the body of the manuscript should be surrounded by quotation marks.
Block quotations (direct quotations of more than 40 words) should be offset from the main text and may be single-spaced. Do not include quotation marks with block quotes.
Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon (note that in the in-text citation, there is no space between the colon and the page number).
For joint authors, give both last names.
For three authors, give all last names in the first citation in the text; in subsequent citations, use the first name and et al.
For four or more authors, use the first author's last name plus et al. in all citations.
Name of Author Unknown
For institutional authorship, supply the minimum identification needed from the beginning of the complete reference to find it in the reference list.
Separate a series of references with a semicolon and either alphabetize or place them in chronological order, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.
(Marwell et al., 1971; Burgess 1980)
Citing a Reprinted Work
If the work being cited was published earlier and then re-released, list the earliest date first and then the most recent date, separate these with a slash.
Citing Unpublished Work
For unpublished papers, cite the date, or, if scheduled to be published soon, use forthcoming in lieu of a date. If no date is given, use N.d.
For archival sources, use abbreviations when possible.