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Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition

Please note that while these resources reflect the most recent updates in the 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Introduction

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.” The material in this resource focuses primarily on one of the two CMS documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social/sciences.

In addition to consulting the The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations  (8th ed.). This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts.

Notes and bibliography (NB) in Chicago style

The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.

The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others. Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material.

If you are asked to use the Chicago NB format, be sure to consult The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) and/or A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed.). Both are available in most writing centers and reference libraries and in bookstores.

Introduction to notes

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication. If you cite the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).

If you cite the same source and page number(s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, the corresponding note should use the word “Ibid.,”  an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem,  which means “in the same place.” If you use the same source but a different page number, the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space. In Turabian style, the footnote or endnote begins with a superscript number.

Introduction to bibliographies

In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.

Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or keyword by which the reader would search for the source may be used instead.

Common Elements

All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.

Author’s Names

The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma; for example, John Smith becomes Smith, John. (If an author is not listed first, this applies to compilers, translators, etc.)

Titles

Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.

Publication Information

The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.

Punctuation

In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

For more information and specific examples see the sections on Books and Periodicals.

Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography. For more information about Selected Bibliographies, Annotated Bibliographies, and Bibliographic Essays, please consult Chapter 14.59 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

General Format

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMS.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation style, including a chart of all CMS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

General CMS Guidelines

Major Paper Sections

Title Page

Main Body
References
This image shows a references page in CMS.

Image Caption: CMS References Page

 
Footnotes

For more information on footnotes, please see CMS NB Sample Paper.

Headings

Chicago has an optional system of five heading levels.

Chicago Headings  

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 

2

Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization

3

Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  

4

Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

5

Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

This image shows the levels of heading in a CMS paper.

Image Caption: CMS Headings

 

Tables and Figures

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMS

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name in Italics, last edited date, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/13/.
    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, and Allen Brizee. “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, October 12, 2011, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/13/.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3    (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.”

List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name in  Italics. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

 

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, and Allen Brizee. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. October 12, 2011. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/13/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication, page or section number when available).
(Clements et al. 2011).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name in Italics, Month and date last edited. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, and Allen Brizee. 2011. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL, October 12. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/13/

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Books

General Model for Citing Books in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography System

Footnote or endnote (N):

 

   1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

 

Corresponding bibliographical entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Book by One Author

N:

 

   1. William Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom! (New York: Vintage Books, 1990), 271.

 

B:

Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom!. New York: Vintage Books, 1990.

Book by Multiple Authors

N:

 

    2. Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.

 

B:

Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.

Translated Work with One Author

N:

 

   3. Julio Cortázar, Hopscotch, trans. Gregory Rabassa (New York: Pantheon Books, 1966), 165.

 

B:

Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.

Book with Author and Editor

N:

 

   4. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.

 

B:

Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Article, Chapter, Essay, Short Story, etc., in an Edited Collection

N:

 

   5. Peter Chilson, "The Border," in The Best American Travel Writing 2008, ed. Anthony Bourdain (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008), 46.

 

B:

Chilson, Peter. "The Border." In The Best American Travel Writing 2008, edited by Anthony Bourdain, 44-51. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.

Introduction in a Book

N:

   6. Steven Pinker, introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, ed. John Brockman (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), xxv.

B:

Pinker, Steven. Introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, Edited by John Brockman. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.

Anonymous Works-Unknown Authorship

Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. Follow the basic format for "Footnote or Endnote" and "Corresponding Bibliographical Entry" that are exemplified above omitting author and/or editor names and beginning respective entries with the title of the source.

Citing Indirect Sources

Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago recommends the use of "quoted in" for the note:

N:

   7. Ian Hacking, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 103, quoted in Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society (New York: Continuum, 2006), 2.
Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Periodicals

Periodicals include printed journals, electronic journals, magazines, and newspapers. Citations for these sources should include enough information for the reader to find the resource in a library or a database. Thus, dates are essential (month, day, and year for magazines and newspapers and volume and year plus month or issue number for journals). In notes, the major elements are separated by commas; in the bibliography, these elements are separated by periods.

Journals

Notes and bibliographic entries for a journal include the following: author’s name, article title, journal title and issue information. Issue information refers to volume, issue number, month, year, and page numbers. For online works, retrieval information and the date of access are also included.

Author’s Name:

Notes include the author’s name as listed in the article. Bibliographic entries, however, invert the author’s name.

Article Title:
Both notes and bibliographies use quotation marks to set off the titles of articles within the journal.

Journal Title:
Journal titles may omit an initial “The” but should otherwise be given in full, capitalized (headline-style), and italicized.

Issue Information:

The volume number follows the journal title with no punctuation and is not italicized. The issue number (if it is given) is separated from the volume number with a comma and is preceded by “no.” The year appears in parenthesis after the volume number (or issue number if given). The year may be preceded by a specific date, month, or season if given. Page information follows the year. For notes, page number(s) refer only to the cited material; the bibliography includes the first and last pages of the article.

N:

      1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.

B:

MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Electronic Journals

Citing electronic journals generally follows the same format for printed periodicals, which is explained in the Journals section. Additionally, entries include the DOI or URL (DOIs are preferred). The date accessed may also be included, especially if the material is time sensitive, but it is not required by Chicago in citations of formally published electronic sources. The access date may be included immediately prior to the DOI or URL and, if included, should be separated by commas in notes or periods in bibliographical entries.

Dates:

Even if weekly or monthly magazines are numbered by volume or issue, they are cited by date only. When following the CMS Note and Bibliography style, the year is presented as shown in the examples below. When following the CMS Author Date style, the date is essential to the citation and it is not enclosed in parentheses.

Departments:

Regular department titles are capitalized headline-style but not put in quotation marks.

Page Numbers:
Citations for magazine articles may include a specific page number. Inclusive page numbers for the entire article are often omitted in bibliographical entries, however, because the pages of the article are often separated by many pages of unrelated material. If page numbers are included, they should follow the date and be preceded by a colon.

N:

      1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

B:

Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

 

Magazines

Notes and bibliographic entries for magazines include the following information: author’s name, article title, magazine title, date.

N:

      1. Emily Macel, “Beijing’s Modern Movement,” Dance Magazine, February 2009, 35.

B:

Macel, Emily. “Beijing’s Modern Movement.” Dance Magazine, February 2009.

Online Magazines

Notes and bibliographic entries for online magazines should follow the relevant examples for printed magazines. Additionally, online magazine entries should also contain the DOI or URL.

Note:
In the examples below, Green Room is not placed in quotation marks because it is the department title rather than the article title.

Access Date:
If an access date is necessary, the access date should be included in parentheses at the end of the citation. Access dates are used for time-sensitive details and may be required by certain publishers or disciplines.

N:

      1. Barron YoungSmith, Green Room, Slate, February 4, 2009, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

B:

YoungSmith, Barron. Green Room. Slate, February 4, 2009. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.

Newspapers

Notes and bibliographic entries for newspapers should include the following: name of the author (if listed), headline or column heading, newspaper name, month (often abbreviated), day, and year. Since issues may include several editions, page numbers are usually omitted. If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation.

Names of Newspapers:

If the name of a newspaper begins with “The,” this word is omitted. For American newspapers that are not well-known, a city name should be added along with the newspaper title (see below). Additionally, a state abbreviation may be added in parenthesis after the city name.

News Services:

News services, such as the Associated Press or the United Press International, are capitalized but not italicized.

Headlines:

Headlines may be capitalized using “headline style,” in which all major words are capitalized, or “sentence style,” in which only the first word and other proper nouns are capitalized. Although many major newspapers prefer sentence style,the CMS  recommends headline style for consistency among various types of cited sources.

Regular Columns:
If a regular column is cited, the column name may be included with the article title or, to save space, the column name may replace the article title.

Citing in Text:

Newspapers are more often cited in text or in notes than in bibliographies. If newspaper sources are carefully documented in the text, they need not be cited in the bibliography.

N:

      1. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

B:

Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Web Sources

General Model for Citing Web Sources in Chicago Style

Footnote or Endnote (N):

      1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online

Electronic books are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a media marker at the end of the citation: Kindle edition, PDF e-book, Microsoft Reader e-book, Palm e-book, CD-ROM, etc. Books consulted online are also cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI (or URL) at the end of the citation. See also Books.

Note: Stable page numbers are not always available in electronic formats; therefore, you may, instead, include the number of chapter, section, or other easily recognizable locator.

Lemon, Rebecca, Emma Mason, Johnathan Roberts, and Christopher Rowland, ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. PDF e-book.

N:

      1. Grant Ian Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form (New York: Methuen, 1987), http://www.rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf.

B:

Thrall, Grant Ian. Land Use and Urban Form. New York: Methuen, 1987. http://www.rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf.

Online Periodicals (Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles)

Online periodicals are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation. See also Periodicals. Also keep in mind that while access dates are not required for formally published electronic sources (journal articles), they can be useful for informally published electronic sources or may be required for by some disciplines for all informally and formally published electronic sources. Access dates should be located immediately prior to the DOI or URL.

N:

      1. Kirsi Peltonen, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen, “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health,” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822, doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

B:

Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

Web Page with Known Author and Date

N:

      7. Mister Jalopy, “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles,” Dinosaurs and Robots, last modified January 30, 2009, http://www.dinosaursandrobots.com/2009/01/effulgence-of-north-storefront-arctic.html.

B:

Mister Jalopy. “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles.” Dinosaurs and Robots. Last modified January 30, 2009. http://www.dinosaursandrobots.com/2009/01/effulgence-of-north-storefront-arctic.html.

Web Page with Known Date but without Known Author

N:

      8. “Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government,” CNN.com, last modified January 30 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

B:

"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN.com. Last modified  January 30, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.

Web Page with Unknown Publication Date and Author

N:

      9. “Band,” Casa de Calexico, accessed January 30, 2009, http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

B:

“Band.” Casa de Calexico. Accessed January 30, 2009. http://www.casadecalexico.com/band.

Blog

Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.

N:

       1. J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

   2. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010 (2:31 a.m.), comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

Podcast

Note: If the word “podcast” is included in the title of the podcast, there is no need to repeat it enclosed in commas after that title. “Podcast audio” is used below, then, as an example placeholder and would not necessarily be required for this specific example.

N:

      1. Ben Curtis and Marina Diez, Heading to the Costa de la Luz - Notes from Spain Podcast 71, podcast audio, Notes from Spain: Travel-Life-Culture, MP3, 27:8, accessed March 30, 2009, http://www.notesfromspain.com/2008/05/22/heading-to-the- costa-de-la-luz-notes-from-spain-podcast-71/.

B:

Curtis, Ben, and Marina Diez. Heading to the Costa de la Luz - Notes from Spain Podcast 71. Podcast audio. Notes from Spain: Travel-Life-Culture. MP3, 27:8. Accessed March 30, 2009. http://www.notesfromspain.com/2008/05/22/heading-to-the- costa-de-la-luz-notes-from-spain-podcast-71/.

Blank Form for Online Multimedia

N:

      1. Firstname Lastname of Performer, Writer or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.

B:

Lastname, Firstname of Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Text. Indication of Medium, Running Time. Publication Date. URL.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Film and Television

This resource explains how to cite film, television, and other audiovisual materials. Citations for such recorded media usually include some or all of the following information: name of the person primarily responsible for the content of the recording (composer, writer, performer, etc.),  a title in quotation marks or italics, recording company or publisher’s name, identifying number, an indication of medium (DVD, videocassette, etc.), and a copyright and/or production or performance date. Entries for recorded material found online should also include a DOI or URL.

General Model for Citing Film, Television, and Other Recorded Mediums in Chicago Style

 Footnote or Endnote (N):

   1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year.), Medium.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

DVD

N:

   1. Joe Versus the Volcano, directed by John Patrick Shanley (1990; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.

B:

Joe Versus the Volcano. Directed by John Patrick Shanley. 1990. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.

Blank Form for Film and Television

N:

   1. Group, Composer or Performer, Title, Medium, Recording Company or Publisher, Catalog Number, Year of Release.

B:

Group, Composer or Performer. Title. Medium. Recording Company

Or

Publisher, Catalog Number. Year of Release.

N:

   1. The National (Musical Group). Boxer. Compact Disc. Beggars Banquet Records, BBQ-252-1. 2007.
Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Interviews and Personal Communication

In citations for interviews and personal communications, the name of the person interviewed or the person from whom the communication is received should be listed first. This is followed by the name of the interviewer or recipient, if given, and supplemented by details regarding the place and date of the interview/communication. Unpublished interviews and personal communications (such as face-to-face or telephone conversations, letters, e-mails, or text messages) are best cited in text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. Published interviews should be like periodical articles or book chapters.

Unpublished Interviews

N:

   1. Alex Smith (retired plumber) in discussion with the author, January 2009.
   2. Harvey Kail, interview by Laurie A. Pinkert, March 15, 2009, interview 45B, transcript.

Published or Broadcast Interviews

N:

   1. Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

B:

Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

Personal Communications

N:

   1. Patricia Burns, e-mail message to author, December 15, 2008.
Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings

This resource covers The Chicago Manual Style guidelines for citing lectures, papers presented at meetings or poster sessions, and other similar presentations. Such entries often include the sponsorship, location, and date of the meeting following the title. When such texts are published, they should be treated like a chapter in a book or article in a journal.

N:

   1. Paul Hanstedt, “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom” (presentation, Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 11-14, 2009).

B:

Hanstedt, Paul. “This is Your Brain on Writing: The Implications of James Zull’s The Art of Changing the Brain for the Writing Classroom.” Presentation at the Annual Convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Francisco, CA, March 11-14, 2009.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

Public Documents and Unpublished Materials

Notes and bibliographic entries for public documents, like other documents, should include the elements needed to locate the items. These essential elements often include the following:

N:

   1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Unpublished Material” (source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication), page number(s).

B:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Unpublished Material.” Source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication.

Unpublished Materials: Theses, Dissertations, Presentations, Etc.

Titles of unpublished works should be capitalized and enclosed in quotation marks. In a note, the identification of a thesis or dissertation, the academic institution, and the date are enclosed in parentheses. In a bibliographic entry, they are not. Citations for a PhD dissertation would resemble those below but would replace the words “master’s thesis” with “PhD diss.”

N:

   1. Tara Hostetler, “Bodies at War: Bacteriology and the Carrier Narratives of ‘Typhoid Mary’” (master’s thesis, Florida State University, 2007), 15-16.

B:

Hostetler, Tara. “Bodies at War: Bacteriology and the Carrier Narratives of ‘Typhoid Mary.’” Master’s thesis, Florida State University, 2007.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

CMS Author Date Sample Paper

This resource contains the Author Date sample paper for The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). To download the sample paper, select the CMS Author Date Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

CMS NB Sample Paper

This resource contains the Notes and Bibliography (NB) sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition. To download the sample paper, select the CMS NB Sample Paper PDF file in the Media box above.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

CMS NB PowerPoint Presentation

Select the CMS NB PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the CMS NB citation style.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

CMS Author Date PowerPoint Presentation

Select the CMS Author Date PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the CMS Author Date citation style.

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

CMS Author Date Classroom Poster

The CMS Author Date poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms, writing centers, or as a pocket reference. Please keep in mind that the file size, as a print-quality resource (120 dpi), is large, so it may take a while to download. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu. As is, the poster is 27 x 36 inches.

Because the poster is quite large, standard printers cannot print the poster. If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents, contact a local print shop to print the poster. The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters.

If you do not have access to a print shop to print the poster, please use the resources we have available here for printing on standard 8.5 x 11 inch paper. Go to resource you would like to print, scroll down to the bottom of the page, and click "Full Resource for Printing."

Also please note that the poster only contains basic CMS guidelines. For detailed instructions, please see the complete OWL CMS resources here.

The Purdue OWL CMS Author Date Classroom Poster was developed by Megan Lancaster for the Purdue Professional Writing - Editing and Publishing class, English 515, in spring 2011.

Purdue OWL CMS Author Date Classroom Poster (Please note: The poster is best viewed in Firefox.)

Contributors:Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee.
Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.

CMS NB Classroom Poster

The CMS Notes and Bibliography (NB) poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms, writing centers, or as a pocket reference. Please keep in mind that the file size, as a print-quality resource (120 dpi), is large, so it may take a while to download. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu. As is, the poster is 27 x 36 inches.

Because the poster is quite large, standard printers cannot print the poster. If you do not have access to a printer that can print large documents, contact a local print shop to print the poster. The Purdue OWL cannot grant requests to print and mail posters.

If you do not have access to a print shop to print the poster, please use the resources we have available here for printing on standard 8.5 x 11 inch paper. Go to resource you would like to print, scroll down to the bottom of the page, and click "Full Resource for Printing."

Also please note that the poster only contains basic CMS guidelines. For detailed instructions, please see the complete OWL CMS resources here.

The Purdue OWL CMS NB Classroom Poster was developed by Megan Lancaster for the Purdue Professional Writing - Editing and Publishing class, English 515, in spring 2011.

Purdue OWL CMS NB Classroom Poster (Please note: The poster is best viewed in Firefox.)