Dangling Modifiers and How To Correct Them
A dangling modifier is a word or phrase that modifies a word not clearly stated in the sentence. A modifier describes, clarifies, or gives more detail about a concept.
"Having finished" states an action but does not name the doer of that action. In English sentences, the doer must be the subject of the main clause that follows. In this sentence, it is Jill. She seems logically to be the one doing the action ("having finished"), and this sentence therefore does not have a dangling modifier.
The following sentence has an incorrect usage:
"Having finished" is a participle expressing action, but the doer is not the TV set (the subject of the main clause): TV sets don't finish assignments. Since the doer of the action expressed in the participle has not been clearly stated, the participial phrase is said to be a dangling modifier.
Strategies for revising dangling modifiers:
1. Name the appropriate or logical doer of the action as the subject of the main clause:
Who arrived late? This sentence says that the written excuse arrived late. To revise, decide who actually arrived late. The possible revision might look like this:
The main clause now names the person (the captain) who did the action in the modifying phrase (arrived late).
2. Change the phrase that dangles into a complete introductory clause by naming the doer of the action in that clause:
Who didn't know his name? This sentence says that "it" didn't know his name. To revise, decide who was trying to introduce him. The revision might look something like this:
The phrase is now a complete introductory clause; it does not modify any other part of the sentence, so is not considered "dangling."
3. Combine the phrase and main clause into one:
Who wanted to improve results? This sentence says that the experiment was trying to improve its own results. To revise, combine the phrase and the main clause into one sentence. The revision might look something like this:
More examples of dangling modifiers and their revisions:
INCORRECT: After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing.
REVISED: After reading the original study, I find the article unconvincing.
INCORRECT: Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, your home should be a place to relax.
REVISED: Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, you should be able to relax at home.
INCORRECT: The experiment was a failure, not having studied the lab manual carefully.
REVISED: They failed the experiment, not having studied the lab manual carefully.