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Contributors: Ashley Velázquez.

These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.

AMA Style

This resource discusses references page formatting for the American Medical Association (AMA) style sheet. AMA was developed by the American Medical Association for the purpose of writing medical research.

References are found at the end of a manuscript and are titled “Reference List”, and each item should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. Additionally, each item should be single-spaced.

Sample Reference

AuthorLastname, FirstInitial. Title in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case. Year; Issue#: PP-PP.

When writing up your references list, be sure to always include the last name and the first and middle initial of the authors without punctuation. However, do use a comma to separate more than one author in a single bibliographic group (e.g., Wheeler T, Watkins PJ).

Use sentence case for all titles (capitalize only the first word of the title). Abbreviate and italicize names of journals according to the listing in the National Library of Medicine database

Additionally, each reference is divided with periods into bibliographic groups; each bibliographic group contains bibliographic elements, which may be separated using the following punctuation marks:

See the following examples:

1.  Wheeler T, Watkins PJ. Cardic denervation in diabetes. BMJ. 1973;4:584-586.
2. O'Keefe M, Coat S. Consulting parents on childhood obesity and implications for medical student learning. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45(10), 573-576.
Contributors: Ashley Velázquez.

These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.

Print Sources

Reference to Print Journals

All references to print journals should include the following elements:

Names of journals are abbreviated and italicized (Medical Education becomes Med Educ as in example 3 below- see the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus) while digits from inclusive page numbers do not omit digits from inclusive page numbers. The year of the publication is followed by a semicolon; the volume number and the issue number (in parentheses), followed by a colon; the initial page number, a hyphen, and the final page number, followed by a period, are set without spaces.

1. Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. The Lancet. 2008;372(9648):1502-1517.
2. Beran RG, Braley TJ, Segal BM, Chervin RD. Sleep-disordered breathing in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2013;80(14):1354-1355.
3. Pollart SM, Caelleigh AS. Changing conversations, changing culture: A medical education journal club. Med Educ. 2011;45(11):1134.
4. Jungang L. Investigation of Radon and Heavy Metals in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, High Lung Cancer Incidence Areas in China. J Environ Health. 2013;76(4):32-39.

Materials with Named Authors and Group Name

References may occur to material that is prepared by a committee or other group. The following forms should be used under such conditions:

1. Lafeuille MH, Grittner AM, Gravel J, et al; Reliant Medical Group Informatics. Opportunities for improving attainment of quality measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Manag Care. 2014;20(1):S5-S24.

References to Print Books

All references to print books should include the following elements:

  1. Authors’ surnames and first and middle initials
  2. Chapter title (when cited)
  3. Surname and first and middle initials of book authors or editors (or translators, if any)
  4. Title of book and subtitle, if any
  5. Volume number and volume title, when there is more than 1 volume
  6. Edition number (do not indicate first edition)
  7. Place of publication
    1. Country names must be spelled out when they appear alone.
    2. For U.S. States and Canadian Provinces, provide the two-letter postal abbreviation available through either the USPS or Canada Post.
  8. Name of publisher
  9. Year of copywright
  10. Page numbers, when specific pages are cited

When referring to an entire book, not pages or specific sections, use the following format:

References should include the last name and first and middle initials of the author(s), italicized title case format for all titles (capitalize all words except prepositions such as of, between, through), articles (such as a, the, and an), and conjunctions (such as but, and, or; however, capitalize them if they begin the title or the subtitle) the city and state of publication, the publisher, and the year of publication/creation.

1. Silverstein A, Silverstein VB, Nunn LS. Cancer. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books; 2006.

2. Maul-Mellott SK, Adams JN. Childhood Cancer: A Nursing Overview. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 1987.

Reference to a Chapter in a Book

Chapters from books should be capitalized in the same format as journal articles (sentence case format) and should not use quotation marks. Additionally, inclusive page numbers for the each chapter should be provided.

The title of the book, however, should be title cased and italicized, following the print book format.

A colon should follow the publication date and no space should be provided between the colon or the page number(s) and hypen.

1. Yagyu S, Iehara T. MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma: Detection of tumor-derived cell-free DNA in serum for predicting prognosis of neuroblastoma. In Hayat MA, ed. Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis. Dordrecht, NY: Springer; 2013:11-17.

Editors and Translators

Names of editors, translators, translator-editors, or executive, consulting, and section editors are given as follows:

1. Engel J, Pedley TA, Aicardi, J, eds. Epilepsy: A Comprehensive Textbook. Vol 3.  Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.

Volume Number

If the work cited includes more than 1 volume, use arabic numerals for volume numbers, regardless of if the publisher used roman numerals.

1. Kurts D, Heath DA, Hines C, et al. Clinical Procedures for Ocular Examination. Vol 3. 2ND ed. McGraw-Hill; 2004.

Edition Number

As with the volume number, use arabic numerals to indicate an edition, even if the publisher has used roman numerals , but do not indicate a first edition. If a subsequent edition is cited, the number should be given. Abbreviate “New revised edition” as “New rev ed”; “Revised edition” as “Rev ed; “American edition” as “American ed”; and British edition” as “British ed.”

1. Barkley, R A. Taking Charge of ADHD: The Complete, Authoritative Guide for Parents. Rev ed. New york, NY: Guilford press; 2000.

Government or Agency Bulletins

References to bulletins published by departments or agencies of a government should include the following information, in the order indicated: (1) name of author (if given); (2) title of bulletin; (3) place of publication; (4) name of issuing bureau, agency, department, or other governmental division (not that in this position, Department should be abbreviated Dept; also not that if an author supplies US Government Printing Office as the publisher, it would be preferable to obtain the name of the issuing bureau, agency, or department, if possible); (5) date of publication; (6) page numbers, if specified; (7) publication number, if any; and (8) series number if given.

1. Visa Bulletin for April 2015. Washington, DC: US Dept of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs; 2015. NIH Publication 79.
2. Shupbach J, Charity E. Hundreds of Disabled Veterans to Attend Winter Sports Clinic. Washington, DC: US Dept of Veteran Affairs; 2015.
3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 75: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. Bethesda, MD: The National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2006. 457-464.

Theses and Dissertations

Italicize the titles of theses and dissertations. References to theses should include the location of the university (or other institution), its name, and year of completion of thesis. If the thesis has been published, it should be treated as any other book reference.

1. Medapati MR. Extracellular S100A4 Induces Human Thyroid Cancer Cell Migration [master’s thesis]. Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba; 2013.
2. MacKenzie MA. Comparing Heart Failure and Cancer Caregiver Satisfaction with Hospice Care. [dissertation]. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2014.

Package Inserts

Package inserts (the printed material about the use and effects of the product contained in the package) may be cited as follows:

1. BioThrax [package insert]. Lansing, MI: Emergent BioSolutions; 2012.
2. AFLURIA [package insert]. Victoria, Australia: bioCSL; 2014.
Contributors: Ashley Velázquez.

These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources.

Electronic Sources

Online Journals

The basic format when referencing an article in an online journal is as follows:

Author(s). Title. Journal Name [using National Library of Medicine abbreviations as mentioned above]. Year;vol(issue NO.):inclusive pages. URL [provide the URL in this field; no need to use “URL:” preceding it]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

1. Drake AJ, Smith A, Betts PR, et al. Type 2 Diabetes in Obese White Children. Arch Dis Child. 2002;86(3), 207-208. http://vsearch.nlm.nih.gov/vivisimo/cgi-bin/query-meta?v:project=nlm-main-website&query=Archives+of+disease+in+childhood. Accessed April 5, 2015.

Books and Books on CD-ROM

The basic format when referencing to an Internet-based book is as follows. Note: If the reference is to the entire book, the information about chapter title and inclusive pages is not included. 

Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. [Edition number, if it is the second edition or above; mention of first edition is not necessary] ed. City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright:inclusive pages. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to the time of publication]. Accessed [date].

1. Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VA.  Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington, DC: National Academies Institute of Medicine; 2005. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11015/preventing-childhood-obesity-health-in-the-balance. Accessed April 7, 2015.

Web Site

When citing data from a Web site, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown below:

Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site). Name of the Web site. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].

1. Living With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes.org. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/recently-diagnosed/living-with-type-1-diabetes.html. Published February 9, 2015. Accessed April 7, 2015.
2. Why Immunize? cdc.gov. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/why.htm. Updated September 23, 2014. Accessed April 7, 2015.
3. Yale University. ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/relesases/2015/01/1501733950. Published January 7, 2015. Accessed April 5, 2015.