Issue For September 18, 2006
Writing Question of the Week
This is usually a question submitted by an OWL user to the OWL Tutors. If you have a question you need answered quickly, ask one of our OWL Tutors or call the Writing Lab's Grammar Hotline at 765-494-3723. And remember, both services are free for everyone!
I have obtained a scholarly journal article from an online database such as EBSCOhost. I have printed the article in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. My current instructor says that I should cite it as a journal from a print source, but I thought it should be cited as a journal obtained from an online database. I know all of the information remains the same except that, for the online database, one would need to include the date retrieved and database used. My instructor's contention is that once I have it in print it is the very same as actually having the journal. It's not that I disagree with her; she has a point. I just don't think it's enough considering there is a specific way to document that information. Is there any way you can help me out here?
Yes, your instructor does have a good point; however, the original page numbers (those from the journal) sometimes change once the document is posted to the database. If you DO have the original page numbers from the journal, then you can easily cite the source in the text as if it were the printed version in the journal. Regardless, you will need to list the source on your works cited page as having been retrieved from a database. Remember that reference lists or works cited pages function in part to help other researchers find the same sources you've worked with. In the case of an article from a journal, a researcher might have access to the database, but not the original journal. You can learn how to cite journals appearing both in print and electronically in APA style at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ (look for the "Online Scholarly Journal" heading) and in MLA style at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/09/ (look for the heading "An Article or Publication in Print and Electronic Form" near the bottom of that page).
The OWL Help Nest
Each week we publish Purdue OWL News readers' requests for advice or information and the responses from other Purdue OWL News readers.
When is it appropriate or required to use ellipses for omitted words/characters when material is quoted? Is there a difference in the answer depending on whether the writing is medical or technical versus non-medical and non-technical?--Dave Apgar, College of Pharmacy University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
An ellipsis (a row of three dots: ...) must be used whenever anything is omitted from within a quoted passage--word, phrase, line, or paragraph-- regardless of its source or use. It would, therefore, apply to all usage, including technical, non-technical, medical, journalistic, fiction, etc. The usual form is a "bare" ellipsis (just the three dots, preceded and followed by a space), although the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers recommends that the writer enclose an ellipsis in brackets [...] when omitting part of an original quotation, to differentiate instances of deleted text from ellipses included in the original text. In all cases, the entire quoted passage, including ellipses, is preceded and followed by quotation marks and the source properly cited.
Two things to consider: 1) using ellipses is a form of "editing" the source material, so be certain that the final outcome does not change the original meaning or intent of the quoted passage; and 2) if quoted text ends up with more ellipses than words, consider paraphrasing rather than using direct quotes. --Charlene, Kentwood, MI
In medical circles, can you briefly mention when follow up, follow-up, and followup may be best used? I understand the last, followup, to be a noun. --David Russell, Home Office
The OWL has a great section on hyphens, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_hyphen.html, which will explain and provide exceptions better than I can. That being said, the following would seem to apply to both medical and other applications:
- "Follow up" is usually used as a verb, as in, "The nurse will follow up with instructions."
- "Follow-up" is usually used as a modfier in front of a noun, as in, "You need to schedule a follow-up visit."
- "Followup" is usually used as a noun, as in, "Followup is highly recommended in such situations."
When writing a personal statement should you put a heading, like Personal Statement, on the top of the page? And should you have your full name in the opening sentence?--Rosemary Wrobel
To make the personal statement look professional, I recommend labelling it in the header of the document. This provides you with a place to include page numbers, your last name, as well as any title you wish to include. As well, since most personal statements accompany resumes, I tailor the first page of the personal statement to mimic the identification section of the resume. It makes for a very streamlined package and avoids the cluminess of introducing yourself in the first line of the statement.--Beverly, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, Corner Brook, NL Canada
Does anyone know which of the two following phrases is correct: (1) Rising Up Towards Excellence or (2) Rising Towards Excellence? I checked a dictionary and there is one example there that says "The road rises up and over the hill" but the rest of the sample sentences use the word "rise" without an "up" following it. When do we use "rise" and when to use "rise up". Thanks a lot.--Lily Reyes, Philippines
Clarity of meaning is the rule to follow. Even though the dictionary may present an example of "rises up," the phrase most often is used redundantly and should be avoided. Concise writing is preferred in our present era. Can you rise down? Exceptions of this type of use may exist, such as the military command, "Stand-down." But the use is deliberate, referring to a military unit or force to relax from an alert or operational posture. Even in this case, a hyphen is used to combine the terms. Safer to write concisely, unless a specific definition/usage is intended. The dictionary example did present a case that is necessary for clear meaning. To write "The road rises over the hill" is awkward and perhaps confusing. To avoid this, the word "up" becomes necessary, in contrast to, "Sir, will you please rise up?" --Derrell Thomas, Norwalk, CA
"Rising Up Towards Excellence" is not grammatically incorrect ("Up" is an adverb, modifying the verb "Rising"), but it would be redundant in business or academic writing. The word "rising" implies "up", so the word "up" should be omitted in most contexts to make a more concise phrase.
However, in this particular example, the author has clearly included "Up" to create a more dramatic title for a book or article. Titles, advertising copy, and captions often use constructions which would be incorrect in other contexts. In this particular context, using "Up" is perfectly acceptable and appropriate.
In your dictionary example, "The road rises up and over the hill", the author probably included the word "up" (again, an adverb) to call attention both to the road's rising AND to its path "over the hill" (a prepositional phrase acting as an adverb). The author clearly wishes to communicate that the road is rising, AND that the road goes over a hill--probably to create an image of the road's steep climb before it reaches the hill's summit.
Again, you probably would omit "up" in business or academic writing, but it could create a desired effect in fiction or add a personal touch to non-fiction (perhaps an essay or biography).--Aaron Minnick, Columbus, OH
"The road rises up and over the hill" implies two actions; the road rises up, then it disappears over the hill.
Similarly, one could "rise to excellence", or, "rise up then stretch to excellence" resulting in the phrase "rise up to excellence."--Tim Wyatt, MaxLite Marketing/ Copywriting
The second phrase (2) is correct as to use 'up' with the word 'rise' is tautology. Other examples include 'He reversed the car back' and 'Two twins won the bowls tournament'. In the first example, 'back' is unnecessary as it repeats the meaning of 'reverse'. Similarly, 'twins' means there are two so the word 'two' is redundant. Regarding the sentence you found in the dictionary, I would suggest that 'up' has been used because without it this sentence could have a slightly different meaning, suggesting that the road rises only once you have gone over the hill. In short (1) Rising up...is incorrect as 'up' repeats the meaning of 'rise'.--Zita Makins, EFL teacher, Italy
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What's Happening on the OWL at Purdue
- OWL Eye On...Improving Handout Graphics. The OWL staff have been in the process of hiring a graphic designer to redesign the graphics that accompany many of our ESL and grammar handouts. Watch for announcements in the Purdue OWL News about these redesigned graphics coming online.
What's Happening in the Writing Lab
- OWL Eye On...Resume Extravaganza. The Writing Lab and its Business Writing Coordinators will hold a Resume Extravaganza on November 16 from 10:00am to 2:00pm in the Purdue Memorial Union. Come on out and get some help on your resume!
- OWL Eye On...ESL Conversation Groups. Conversation groups are held daily in the Writing Lab to help international students improve their English speaking skills. Learn more at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/writinglab/topic/conversationgroups/. The Fall 2006 ESL Conversation group schedule is:
- Mondays, 9:30-10:30
- Tuesdays, 10:30-11:30
- Wednesdays, 3:00-4:00
- Thursdays, 2:00-3:00
- Fridays, 11:30-12:30
- OWL Eye On...Writing Lab Fall Hours and Locations. The Writing Lab's Fall 2006 hours of operation for Heavilon Hall are Monday through Thursday, 9:00-6:00 and Friday, 9:00-1:00. Writing consultants will be available in the Hicks Undergraduate Library/DLC on Monday from 7:00 pm to 10:00 pm and in Meredith Hall on Wednesday from 7:00-10:00 pm.
Corrections to Last Week's Purdue OWL News
In the September 11, 2006 issue, a number of readers pointed out the error in our Question of the Week: "Because blogging is a new phenomena..." It should, of course, have read "phenomenon," not the plural "phenomena."
This week's OWL News was edited by Karl Stolley, OWL Webmaster.